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Construction

Wilton carpets were first produced in Wilton, England when its first carpet loom was patented in 1741

A Wilton carpet is woven in either a plain colour or a pattern containing no more than five colours. They are available in many patterns as well as textures such as looped or a cut-velvet appearance.  Types of Wilton carpets include the face-to-face, single frame and multi-frame. In a face-to-face Wilton carpet, machines weave two backings attached by pile yarn. The yarn is then cut to form two cut pile carpets.

The Wilton carpet is known for its strength and durability and is a popular choice for commercial areas as it can stand up to high traffic. Wilton carpeting is often used on airliners and passenger trains as well as in hotels, but can also be used in residential installations, but Wilton area rugs are more common for domestic use than the wall-to-wall carpeting.

An Axminster carpet is a woven carpet: the tufts and the backing are woven together at the same time. This is distinctly different to a tufted carpet where the backing is glued on after manufacture. Although modern looms are far more efficient and produce a more uniform quality, the style of weaving has not changed for hundreds of years.

Yarn is also fed through the back of the loom to a yarn carrier. A jacquard card or electronic jacquard selects the colour tuft required in sequence to produce the desired design. The grippers then draw the pre-selected lengths of yarn, which are cut by a series of knives. The resulting tufts are positioned between the warps by the grippers and retained by the weft. A large rapier needle carries the jute weft between the warp threads, locking the tufts in place.

As the gripper returns to its starting position the alternate rows of warps move in a vertical motion before the next row of tufts is selected.
In this way a woven lattice of tightly packed cords and wool tufts build up to form a carpet under the expert supervision of the weaver.

It takes eight hours to weave 100 square metres of top-quality Axminster.

Tufted carpet is a resilient and long-wearing form of carpet. It is manufactured by industrial machines and is the most popular technique for making carpet. The term "tufting" refers to the technique of clustering yarn carpet fibres. These yarn fibres are then drawn through backing material, which is secured by bonding adhesive, to form tufts. This backing material can come from a synthetic or natural source. The most popular forms of tufted carpet are velvet, twist pile and loop.

Tufted carpets are manufactured by tufting machines. The machine consists of mounted needles, which force the tufted fibres so they break through the foundation material. Each machine usually has several settings so the height and fullness of the tuft can be set before the carpet-making process begins. More advanced machines also have settings that allow for different heights of tufts to allow for decorative patterns on the carpet.

Tufted carpets are often treated with chemicals, which decrease the likelihood of stains setting and ruining the color of a carpet. This helps keep the carpet looking attractive and new, meaning homeowners won't have to replace them for several years. Tufted carpet is usually used for indoor premises such as apartments, houses and offices.

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